TIME IMMEMORAL-PRESENT

A Timeline of Gabrieleno Tongva History by Jonas Banta

Click here to go to our modern era (1990-present)

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CREATION

Tongva Creation, Quaoar brought the gods and world to existence through song and dance

2500 BCE

2500 BCE First Tongva arrivals out of the Great Basin area of southern Oregon and Nevada. A 4500 year history in California begins.

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1200 CE

Peak of Tongva culture and territorial expansion

1542-1769: COLONIZATION

  • 1542: Spanish arrive in Catalina and San Pedro harbor area (Cabrillo).

  • 1602: Spain returns to Catalina and coastal sites (Vizcaino).

  • 1769: Gaspar de Portola enters Tongva territory. European diseases have already begun decimating the population. Conflicts begin.

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1771: MISSION ERA

Mission San Gabriel is founded at Isankanga and begins the process of "conversion". Conflict with local Tongva forces the church to move to present location at the village of Sibangna (1775-1776). Tongva name changed to "Gabrieleno" (an umbrella term imposed by the Spanish on the native population of the area, who hailed from multiple tribes, including Tongva) and the missionization process begins. Non-converts integrate into social and economic life, but not religious life.

1773-1833: GENOCIDE AND REVOLTS

  • 1773: First revolt against San Gabriel mission

  • 1786: Most "Gabrielenos" become a peasant class working for missions or the landed gentry. Apartheid policy dominates church-state relationships with the Gabrieleno.

  • 1787: Revolts in surrounding areas terrify church and state officials. Spanish hold control on a 20-mile radius around Los Angeles (Yangna).

  • 1796: Gabrielenos become the major labor force in Pueblo de Los Angeles and for the outlying ranches and farms.

  • 1800: Most Gabrieleno are either missionized, dead, or have fled to other areas and are intermarried with Kokoémkam (Serrano), Achjachemen (Juaneño), Cupa, or Kumitaraxam (Cahuilla) families. Some flee as far as Monterey.

  • 1800-1833: Missions grow and ranches have expanded. Most Gabrieleno are either in slave labor or in peasant class. Many are fugitive runaways. Church and state send armed raids to capture escaped "converts" and also those who are not yet "converted". Diseases continue to spread.

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1823-1833 DECLINE OF MISSION ERA

  • 1823: The last mission, San Francisco Solano, is founded; San Diego is in decline.

  • 1833: Missions are secularized after Mexico gains independence from Spain. Most Gabrielenos become laborers for the New Mexican rancheros. Many Gabrieleno families are now scattered from Monterey to San Diego; some are living with groups in the remote interior.

MEXICAN ERA

  • 1833-1848: Mexican control of California

  • 1840-1850: Gabrieleno-Tongva language still in use. Some rituals and games, traditional crafts still maintained. Tongva is used by both Europeans and Indians. Smallpox epidemics decimate all tribal peoples in the area. California becomes a state; Indians barred from any political participation. By the late 1840s the last Tongva towns are destroyed.

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CALIFORNIA STATEHOOD

  • 1852: Hugo Reid publishes Indians of Los Angeles County. He marries Victoria Comicrabit, Tongva from Comicrangna. She is buried in an unmarked grave at San Gabriel Mission and is an ancestor of the present chief.

  • 1853: Juana Maria (The Lone Woman of San Nicolas) is taken to Santa Barbara; she dies a few months later. She is remembered as the main protagonist in Island of the Blue Dolphins.

  • 1869-1900: Smallpox epidemics continue to kill Gabrieleno. Isolated families manage to survive and maintain traditions.

1903-1940 CULTURAL RECLAMATION

  • 1903: C. Hart Merriam and A.L. Kroeber begin their study of the Gabrieleno. They are in turn followed by Constance DuBois and J.P. Harrington.

  • 1925: Harrington records songs and culture of the Tongva at Pala Indian Reservation.

  • 1933: Helen H. Roberts publishes Form in Primitive Music, which focuses on Gabrieleno music and songs.

  • 1940s: Tongva cheifdom continues from Chief Salvador; San Gabriel (SIbangna) maintains the center of surviving Tongva culture.

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1990-TODAY

A Timeline of Gabrieleno Tongva History by Jonas Banta

 
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STATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

1994:
• Both the City of San Gabriel and California Legislature pass resolutions recognizing the "Gabrieleno-Tongva Nation" as the indigenous peoples of the Los Angeles Basin with a continuous unbroken history.
• Ti'at Society founded to revitalize Tongva canoes and seafaring

1995-1999

  • February 6, Fred "Sparky" Morales, Chief of the Tongva, dies; his son, Anthony, assumes the chiefdom.

  • November, the Tongva Nation Dancers are founded.

  • September 25: The Gabrieleno-Tongva reconstruct a display section of the village of Chokiishnga for Heritage Park in the city of Santa Fe Springs.

  • November 14: The Gabrieleno join with the city of San Gabriel on the expansion of Smith Park in honor of the village site of Sibangna.

  • Opening of the Haramonkngna Interpretive Center at Red Box in the San Gabriel Mountains

  • Continuation with the discussions with Hahamongna (La Cañada-Flintridge)

  • Opening of the "Ememot Tahrahhat Kekeesh" Tongva Youth Center in El Monte.

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2000-2005

2000

  • Possible interpretive center discussions at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in Claremont.

  • Mt. Baldy (Joatngna) project begins.

  • Loyola Marymount University dedicates "People of the Earth" memorial to Tongva nation (shown above).

2001​

  • Cal Poly Pomona begins early talks on a Tongva interpretive garden.

2002​

  • Kiiy village built at Big Bear

2003

  • San Gabriel Mission begins restoring Native plants to Mission

2004

  • Dedication of Mt. Baldy village

  • Creation of Horomongna Toypurina Lodge Learning Center

2005​

  • Cerritos recognizes Tongva village site

2006-2010

  • 2006 Amendment to cemetery law 2.640, beginning of warrior culture at Franklin High School

  • 2007 Rebuild of Andesta at Playa Vista, Beginning of Tongva naming ceremony

  • 2008: In Palos Verdes, Coastal Monument shows tri-fold of Tongva history and sacred site

  • 2009: Honn veterans Puruvanga monument created, Tongva dance company participated in Disney Music LA at the Autry

  • 2010: Arcadia gold line basket on 210 freeway created with insight from Tongva basketweavers. Tongva receive gift for canoe navigator from Poly O'toco

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2011-2012

  • Opening and dedication of Uncommon Good

  • Los Angeles expo line and Tongva at the train station

  • Holy Seven Sisters play hosted at Pomona College

2013: UNIVERSITY COLLABORATION

  • Tongva involved in Rose Parade

  • Mission play conducted showing Tongva and Mission history

  • UCLA oral history project begins

  • Pitzer College displays 20 signs of sites by Edgar Heap of Birds

  • Huntington Library displays exhibit on Junipero Serra

  • Azusa Alameda rotation and extension of gold line foothill.

  • Tongva park in Santa Monica opens to public.

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2014-2016

2014​

  • San Gabriel railroad project

  • Canonization of Juniperro Serra

  • Tongva dancers celebrate 20 year anniversary

  • Ti'at moved from San Pedro to Claremont

2015​

  • Beverly Hills electric fountain restored

  • City of Monrovia Canyon Park Native exhibit displayed

2016​

  • Urban Rez play on Nicodueño

2018: PARK AND MUSEUM COLLABORATION

  • Southwest Museum Cultural Inventory of Tongva artifacts

  • Pitzer College Sacred Grandmother mural created

  • Mexican President brings Guadalupe Hidalgo treaties on December 17

  • Ganesha Park dedication of carvings to Tongva

  • Welcome Maori to Wishtoyo and dedicate statue at Kuruvungna Springs.

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2018: HONORING OUR CULTURE

  • Santa Monica History Museum honors Tongva on Sep. 28

  • Native California Day celebrated at Southwest Museum

  • Protocols from Catholic Archdiocese promising allowance of ceremony at Mission

  • Tongva are given burial plot from Catholic Church for reburial of ancestors at Queen of Angels cemetery

  • Removal of Christopher Columbus statue from downtown LA

  • Honoring of ancestors held at San Gabriel Mission.